The 10 Best Films of All Time | Katie G

Memento

This is a much less well known film but one of my personal favourites. It is the story of an insurance investigator who sets out to find the murderer of his wife but in the same incident he received short term memory loss. So he is able to remember everything before the accident but not make new memories. Half the film is told chronologically providing the backstory of the characters, and in the other half the scenes run in reverse order helping the viewer unravel the mystery the same way as the main character. Directed by Christopher Nolan, it is one of the most cunning film ideas I have ever seen.

Rating – 15

Arrival

Directed by Denis Villeneuve, this film truly expresses how the pen is mightier than the sword. When 12 alien spaceships land across the world, a linguist is called on to help understand why these creatures have landed on earth. Another film that uses non-linear storytelling, it displays how language forms the bridges of society.

Rating – 12A

Terminator

Terminator In 2029 an artificial intelligence system called sky net tries to launch the nuclear apocalypse; a cyborg assassin known as a Terminator travels from 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor the mother of the man who will grow up to lead the human resistance against the machines. It is one of the most creative and iconic films in movie history, directed by James Cameron.

Rating – 15

Groundhog Day

A cynical TV weatherman finds himself reliving the same day over and over again when he goes on location to the small town of Punxsutawney to film a report about their annual Groundhog Day. Directed by Harold Ramis it is another classic loved by all.

Rating – PG

Back to the Future (Trilogy)

Films that don’t require an introduction. Directed by Robert Zemeckis, Back to the Future is the timeless classic of Marty Mcfly’s adventures of travelling through time.

Rating – PG

WALL-E

WALL-E In 2805 when humans have been forced to leave their dying planet and leave robots to clean up the mess. Wall-E the heartwarming story of a robot falling in love is adored across all generations.

Rating -U

Inception

This thought-provoking film directed by Christopher Nolan involves nonlinear storytelling. It is the story of a group of thieves who steal secrets from subconscious people as they sleep. But 5 minutes in the real world is an hour in the dream. It is a mind-boggling film that is seems to change each time you watch it.

Rating – 12

Jurassic Park

In Steven Spielberg’s massive blockbuster, a select group are chosen to tour an island theme park populated by dinosaurs created from prehistoric DNA. It is another timeless classic for anyone to enjoy. ”an adventure 65 million years in the making.”

Rating – PG

The Shawshank Redemption

Arguably one of the best films ever made. Directed by Frank Darabont and based on the story by Stephen King, it is the tale of two men’s time on the inside. “when those bars slam home, that’s when you know it’s for real. A whole life is blown away in the blink of an eye. Nothing left but all the time in the world to think about it.”

Rating – 15

Harry Potter (Film series)

Although this isn’t a film directly related to the time, I felt the need to include it as they are films that are just as magical rewatching as it was when you first watched it as a child. And I’m sure they are a staple of many people’s childhood. So they will,in my eyes, forever be timeless.

Rating – PG/12

An Interview with Mr Donaldson on Time | Conducted and Transcribed by Eeman

Backchat: Which is your favourite time period to teach and why?

Mr D: Easy! The making of Modern Britain from 1951 to 2007 because it’s really relevant to students’ lives and I like how they can relate to it and it also brings in politics and economics. Also, probably because it’s the story of my family; my dad, my mum, my grandad lived through this. I’ve found that when teaching history it’s important to relate it back to them because it’s such an abstract subject.

B: If you could talk to your past self for exactly one minute what would you say?

Mr D: Blimey! I think I would say you worry too much. People plan and they never work out how they’re supposed to, but that’s sort of how life works. If I went back to talk to myself as a teenager, I would say stop worrying about what might happen, what you need to do and to relax a little bit because you haven’t got a lot of control over things. As you get older you realise that it matters less what other people might think of you than you believe when you’re growing up. You’ve just got to be yourself!

B: If you could choose to be immortal and have all the time in the world, would you take it?

Mr D: No. Because… I think I’d get bored of it all eventually. This might sound quite dark, but I think one day I’d just like to sleep and leave it all behind. That’s gonna happen anyway at some point, but I just feel like life is so hard and tiring, although I’d like a good innings, at some point I would want it to stop. To avoid boredom as well is difficult, in some ways I’m accepting of the fact that this is temporary and you’re only here for a short time…and that’s fine.

B: What do you think has been the most significant change in the world?

Mr D: I guess today you would sort of say climate change, but in my lifetime the biggest change has been… technology. When I was at university, writing my dissertation, I did it on a typewriter! Computers were something that weren’t common back then, so I think the internet has been a massive change. As a teacher you notice it more, but life in general has become so hectic and busy. Perhaps that’s me saying it as an adult, whereas a child you have more time to daydream. I think lots of people would argue life is more complex now. I think the modern world has become a very busy place to work in.

B: Which period would you like to live in the most?

Mr D: I’m quite happy with now, because that’s where I am. You might get some history teachers that have favourite time periods they would love to visit, but I think I’m quite accepting of the fact that I’m around now. I would love to go to the future, but a bit of history I’d go back to… maybe just for a day.

B: If you could time travel would you choose to go into the past or the future?

Mr D: Future. That’s the great unknown isn’t it? I already know about the past, but the future I have no idea about so it would be quite interesting! Maybe about sort of 50 years ahead. I’d love to travel around space a bit, I think that would be really cool! It’s so gigantic and vast and we’re in such a tiny contained part of the universe, to see it in all its vastness… Because life is actually quite claustrophobic. So maybe a bit of space travel??

B: What do you think humans should aim to do at least once in their lifetime?

Mr D: I have tried skydiving, but I’m not sure it’s something you have to do in your lifetime. It’s such a vast question, but there’s obvious thing like everyone should fall in love. Mostly I think it’s the little things you do every day that everyone should experience, for example, saying hello to your neighbour or having a chat with your kids… It’s the little things like that, that I think add up to make a massive difference. The idea that if you can help someone just a little bit is… I mean if everybody did that the world would be a much nicer place.

B: Where do you see yourself in ten years’ time?

Mr D: Ten years’ time… Not teaching! I’m not one of those people who will have the energy or passion to do it anymore. So, I would probably be somewhere doing a bit of travelling… Back to New Zealand, which is fabulous! Or wandering around Scotland a little bit, exploring. Just spending time doing things I actually want to do! Once you get a job, it steals a lot of time from you and in ten years I will have done my bit in teaching and you lot will have had enough from me. I want to still be young enough to actually put effort into my travelling and have a proper go at it… not on a cruise with a pension and those group coaches. That’s not me!

B: If you had all the time to change one thing about the world, what would it be and why?

Mr D: I’m not sure what it is I would do…. But it would be along the lines of helping as many people as possible. Like reversing climate change, or curing cancer, or making sure coronavirus didn’t get out. Something that would make the most difference to the most amount of people as possible…. That is a massive question!

Is Time the Limiting Factor? | Naomi

Productivity Tips from a Procrastinator

We understand the value of resources based on availability. In economics price is always dependent on supply and demand whilst in entertainment a talent is highly valuable if it is rare. Two things have infinite demand and finite resources – time and energy. Balancing these two factors is the core focus of many global issues, most notably climate change. The clock is ticking as we approach a potential global energy crisis. The focus of this issue is sustainability. Often we neglect this principle of sustainability in other areas of our lives too. We talk about maximising our efficiency and productivity – getting as much done as possible or making the most money we can – but we must not neglect the importance of rest and self-care. Ultimately there is no point in being super efficient and successful if you don’t integrate built in systems to help you maintain your energy. Short term achievements are meaningless if they don’t result in sustainable futures.

“Forget Time Management. It’s About Energy Management” – Alan P. Brown (Productivity Coach)

In lockdown I am starting to realise that time is not the limiting factor in almost any area of progress or personal development. Things that I had previously ignored with the “I don’t have time” line of defence I have still pushed back in lockdown with no excuse to fall back on. I struggle really badly with procrastination and have done a lot of research into this topic as a result. Reflecting on this predicament I recalled learning about the concept of energy management (as opposed to time management). It dawned on me that this is crucial as without energy we will never have the motivation to stick to our beautifully colour coded schedule. There is no point in being ultra organised and efficient with time management if this will only last a couple of days before you crash and slump back onto the sofa to scroll through Netflix.

“Energy, not time, is the fundamental currency of high performance.” – Tony Schwartz, CEO The Energy Project

In psychology this theory of energy management is most commonly used to help patients with ADHD. In those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder the difficulty with energy management is even more significant. According to the latest research this comes down to lower dopamine transporter density within the brain. This means that the brain does not have the proteins it needs to get dopamine – a neurotransmitter responsible for stimulation and reward. In a neurotypical individual (a person without a mental health disability) when an action is carried out that causes the individual to progress towards a goal or reach a desired outcome then the brain is rewarded with a dopamine spike. However this is not received as effectively in those with ADHD making it much harder to have motivation since they will not receive this internal reward from their brain chemistry. To combat this issue ADHD coaches can use energy management techniques to form habits and trick the brain into enjoying challenges.

“You can’t make more minutes in the day, but you can increase your energy!” – K. Kruse, Forbes

I believe we can all learn something from this technique since I’m sure many of us feel we could benefit from learning about how to sustain effort towards our goals without getting burnt out by stress. While reading the articles by Marla Cummins (ADHD Coach) and Alan P. Brown (Productivity Coach) I discovered the research into the 4 types of energy – Physical, Emotional, Mental and Spiritual. Each of these energy types can be boosted or depleted and all of them are critical to performance – if you are low in just one of these areas then you can experience exhaustion.

  • Physical energy is focused on diet and exercise. Getting what the body needs in terms of fuel and activity is critical. The benefits of these are well documented within medicine and psychology. However without the other types of energy management in place it is virtually impossible to find the motivation to maintain healthy habits.
  • Emotional energy is based on our social interactions and mental well-being. To improve emotional energy levels be kind to yourself and surround yourself with positive people who care about you. Perhaps have a digital detox if social media is something you struggle with and spend time focussing on things you enjoy. Having fun is the most important step towards improved emotional well-being.
  • Mental energy is what we tend to need the most for studies. To optimise mental energy have a mental declutter – dumping your thoughts onto paper or a notes app – then focus on each thing one at a time to avoid overwhelm. Taking regular breaks is critical to improve mental performance and maintain mental stimulation. Managing distractions where possible will also help to conserve mental energy by focussing on the task at hand.
  • Spiritual energy is very personal. I have a faith so Christianity is my spiritual fuel and I get energy from time spent with God. For others it is simply having a passion or a goal that you care deeply about. Some suggestions to help could be to try a gratitude practice – whether that is through prayer or simply as a mindfulness exercise that is up to you, or perhaps to find a charitable cause you care about and volunteer, fundraise or donate. The purpose of dedicating time to the spirit is to be more outward looking and to take time to reflect on your values.

Whatever you do remember to be kind to yourself and have fun! The best way to improve your energy levels is to do things you love more and try to enjoy even the mundane things as much as you can. This is a very difficult time and for many this may be a time of sadness, loneliness or difficulty so if you don’t feel that this advice will make you feel better then feel free to leave it alone. This article is for inspiration if you want it but I want you to know that just by staying safe and looking after yourself you are helping out and anything else is just an added bonus. Often the world pressures us to achieve or to improve and that is great but if you are not feeling up to it right now for whatever reason then know that you are enough just the way you are!

Time image: https://www.ionos.co.uk/digitalguide/fileadmin/DigitalGuide/Teaser/totp-t.jpg (07/01/21)

Cronus, the God of Time | By Georgia

Time is destructive; it’s an all-devouring force. Cronus was both of these things. He was the titan god of time and the son of Uranus, the ruler of the universe. This is Cronus’ story. Gaia, the mother of the earth, was angry. Her children had been taken from her – the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, locked away in the underworld, Tartarus, unable to see the light or feel the sun on their skin, and for what? Because Uranus was disgusted? Afraid? Was the ruler of the universe really unable to bear the sight of his own children? As she felt the weight of the stone sickle that rested across her palms, the answer was clear to her, in all of its simple, violent glory. She called the titans to her – the twelve children Uranus had allowed her to keep. All of them, from Oceanus, the oldest, to Cronus, the youngest, agreed with their mother that the only way to release their brethren from Tartarus was to deal Uranus a great wound – he was a god, and unable to be killed, but the titans knew that if they were able to weaken Uranus, he could be overthrown. However, when Gaia raised her voice and asked her children which of them would perform the deed, all fell silent. No one wanted to be the one to risk angering their father; to risk the consequences that failure would bring. The silence blanketed the siblings in a smothering layer – until Cronus spoke up. He announced to his mother that he would be the one to wound Uranus, that he would be the one to end his tyrannical reign. Unbeknownst to the rest of the titans, Cronus envied his father’s power. He was secretly determined that once Uranus had been dispatched, he should be the one to take his place. And so, the day came. Cronus lay in wait for his father, holding the sickle given to him by Gaia. When Uranus appeared, Cronus leapt out and, catching him by surprise, wounded Uranus gravely. Uranus fled, dripping blood as he went. As each drop of blood fell to the earth, it created something new. The first created the Gigantes, the second the Erinyes and the third, the Meliae. The final drop of blood that fell from the wound landed in the ocean and created the white foam from which the goddess Aphrodite was born. Gaia and the titans rejoiced, happy for Uranus to be gone and for the freedom of the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes. Their joy, however, was short lived, as Cronus immediately took control. He once again incarcerated his youngest siblings, this time commanding the dragon Campe to guard them. He took his throne as king, and forced Rhea, the goddess of motherhood and fertility, to become his queen. Cronus and Rhea ruled all throughout the Golden Age. Cronus was happy – he had achieved his goals, and his subjects were loyal to him. He was the ultimate ruler of all. He feared nothing, other than the prophecy. The prophecy that decreed that Cronus would be overthrown by his son, just as Uranus had been. The idea of losing his throne was his weakness – his one fear. Because of this fear, every time his wife Rhea gave birth to a child, Cronus would swallow each one whole – they would not be killed, but they would not be able to harm him. In a desperate attempt to save her youngest son, Zeus, from Cronus, Rhea stole him from his cradle and gave him to the nymph Adamanthea to raise on Mount Ida, away from his dangerous father. To try and avoid suspicion, Rhea swaddled a large rock in cloth and placed that in the cradle in place of Zeus. Cronus, not realising anything was wrong, swallowed the rock and believed himself to be safe. And so Zeus was raised on the mountain, far away from his father. When he was a baby, Rhea convinced nymphs to play loud, beautiful music at the mouth of his cave to cover the sounds of his cries. As he grew, he got stronger and stronger, and the desire to save his siblings and drive away his tyrannical father grew within him. By the time he was fully grown, Zeus had a plan; but he couldn’t do it alone. So, for the first time since was a baby, he returned to Rhea. His mother was delighted to see him, and to see how well he had grown. When he told her his plan, Rhea agreed almost immediately. Seeing Zeus again had made her realise that the grief she felt for her lost children could be eased – she might be able to get them back. The plan was simple; Rhea would poison Cronus. Of course, he was immortal and therefore unable to be killed, just as his father was before him, but the poison was sure to make him so sick that he would be unable to stop himself from vomiting up Zeus’ brothers and sisters. The next day, Zeus hid as he watched his mother give Cronus the poison, disguised as a herbal concoction of strength. The effects were almost immediate, and Zeus’ siblings began to appear in front of him. At last, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades and Poseidon joined Zeus on the earth, and turned against their father in fury. One look at their raging faces, and Cronus turned and ran. Cronus’ defeat is what started the 10-year war between the Olympians – Zeus and his siblings – and the remaining titans. After a decade of war and violence, the Olympians emerged triumphant, having defeated and imprisoned the titans in the deepest pits of Tartarus. The Olympians used their new power to finally release the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes from their prison. The Cyclopes were so grateful to them for ending their imprisonment that they crafted weapons and armour for Zeus, Hades and Poseidon – the gods of the heavens, sea and underworld. Zeus was given his thunderbolts, Hades his helmet and Poseidon his trident.

Image: https://www.thecollector.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/giulio-romano-olympian-gods-wall-painting-1.jpg (30/12/20)

Why do we age over time? | by Sarah

Recently, Hilda Clulow passed away at a great age of 111, she was the UK’s oldest person. She was born on 15th March 1908 and witnessed momentous events including the discovery of antibiotics, the moon landing and the release of the first iPhone. It is unlikely that many of us will live to this great age, as the average life expectancy in the UK is only 80 years old, which is 31years less than Mrs Clulow’s record age.

Why even with improvements in medicine, is this? This is one of the unanswered quest ions of modern science. We still do not have a conclusive reason why with the passage of time our bodies age. Scientists have come up with many theories why our bodies biologically age, however, the common theory is that it is a combination of factors and not linked to one single cause.

One theory states that over time as our cells divide mutations accumulate and this accumulation can cause problems for the human body. On average, a human cell will divide between 50-70 times before cell death. There are trillions in our body so it is likely that some cells will not replicate correctly leading to mutations in our cells. Mutations in cells can also be caused by mutagens, for example, ultraviolet radiation. Most of the time, the mutations are harmless and DNA repair mechanisms fix the damage, but errors can slip through as we age. Ageing has been linked to the deterioration of these DNA repair mechanisms. This deterioration allows for permanent errors to become more common as we grow older. If the cell with mutated DNA is not corrected then, they can pose a health risk, for example, tumour cells contain a mutation which affects the cell’s genes which control cell division causing them to divide uncontrollably. This risk increases as we age due to the deterioration of the DNA repair mechanisms.

If a cell’s DNA becomes too damaged it will enter apoptosis where the cell dies at a programmed rate or the cell will become senescent. Senescence is a process where the cells kill themselves or become nonreplicating and become dormant.

However, it has been suggested that an accumulation of these cells can speed up cell ageing by releasing inflammatory cytokines (small proteins that are important in cell signalling). This is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis, a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries, and other ageing-related diseases. This theory states that ageing is directly affected by the damage to cells over time during division.

Another theory was developed in the 1950s by Denham Harman. It is known as the free-radical theory of ageing and states that ageing is caused by the accumulation of damage inflicted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS is produced in all aerobic cells and is formed from products of oxygen. It can be beneficial to organisms as cell regulators, but in high doses, they become cytotoxic, often leading to cell death. Our cells’ levels of free radical damage increase with age and this has been linked to an increase of ROS over time. The free radical theory may also be used to explain many of the structural features that develop with ageing including DNA damage and a decline in mitochondrial function.

However, in the 1990s, scientists studying model organisms observed phenomena that contradicted the free radical theory. They showed that the enzymes that block the product ion of ROS didn’t extend the lifespan of mice. They found in worms, stressing the mitochondria at a certain stage of development actually increased life span. So we are still unsure whether this theory serves as an explanation to the main reason why we age or is just another factor of ageing.

A final theory states that ageing is due to an accumulation of our cells which lose the ability to replicate correctly. Our DNA strands become slightly shorter each time a chromosome replicates itself. Telomeres help prevent genes from being lost in this process but this means that as your chromosomes replicate, your telomeres shorten. An enzyme called telomerase helps prevent too much damage to your cells. This includes shortening of your telomeres. Telomerase does this by adding additional telomere sequences to the ends of your chromosomes. However, telomerase is only found in certain cells so most cell types in your body don’t have telomerase. This means that most of your telomeres continue to get shorter over time so the DNA polymerase cannot fully replicate the ends of chromosomes in most cells. If the telomeres shrink too much or are damaged, cells enter senescence. This slows the body’s ability to renew itself. Telomere damage has clear effects on ageing. Mice with short telomeres have diminished life spans and reduced stem-cell and organ function, while mice whose telomerase is enhanced in adulthood age more slowly. In humans, mutated telomerase is associated with disorders involving organ dysfunction and elevated cancer risk.

Yet even with all these theories we still have not got an answer exactly why these factors occur and how they function together. Maybe in the future, we will have conclusive proof of why, over time, our body ages, but will that take a couple of years or a couple of lifetimes to find. I guess we will have to wait and see what momentous events we will witness.

What’s inside a black hole? | by Lexy

Black holes were first theorised by John Michell in 1783. He named them ‘Dark Stars’. At that time, it was a common belief that light was made up of particles which reacted to gravity. Michell believed that these so called ‘dark stars’ were very large stars with a very strong gravitational field, so strong that no particles could leave, including light particles. This meant that ‘dark stars’ would be invisible to the human eye.

Progress was not made on the theory of black holes and dark stars until the 1900s, when Albert Einstein started work on his theory of general relativity. His theory stated that space and time were different directions in ‘space-time’. This was then bent, creating black holes.

The current theory of black holes came from John Wheeler in 1967. They originate as stars, formed when stars begin to die, cooling and shrinking, increasing in density, until it becomes a concentrated mass that bends space-time, punching a bottomless hole through it. The smaller and more dense the mass, the stronger it’s gravitational pull, eventually even light cannot escape. The Event Horizon is a point where the gravity is just strong enough to drag light backwards. Past this boundary, light can escape, meaning we can see up to, but not beyond, this point. Nothing can travel faster than light, so if light cannot escape the black hole, nothing else can. However, if you are beyond the event horizon, it is possible to resist the gravitational pull, albeit with great difficulty.

The stark lack of light is just as eye catching as a bright light. A black hole appears as a black void, in which nothing can be seen, not even a slight outline. Space is always lit up by stars, and so a sudden gap in light is noticeable.

The size of a black hole relates to how much matter is in it. A larger black hole contains more matter. Due to the uncertainty relation, a concept imagined by Werner Heisenberg in 1923, some particles are able to escape from a black hole, despite the fact that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. The uncertainty relation means that with sub-atomic, and atomic sized objects, such as the particles in black holes, it is impossible to tell more than one aspect of its movement accurately. If the exact location of a particle is known, the exact speed cannot be known and vice versa.

In smaller black holes, the location is known, so the speed can only be estimated, and varies to a certain degree. This then makes it possible for particles to move just over the speed of light, despite what anyone’s ever been told about light being that fastest thing to ever move. Anything moving over the speed of light has the ability to ‘outrun’ the gravity that is pulling it back into the hole, meaning it can escape past the event horizon. Inside a black hole, the most popular theory is of a singularity. The remains of the dead star, once it has finally stopped shrinking. Atoms, in their common state, are mainly empty space.The gravity in a dying star becomes so strong that it causes these atoms to collapse on themselves, leaving no space, either between that atoms and within the atoms. This is the densest an object can ever become, and since the atoms no longer exist as atoms due to them losing their atomic structure, the singularity has no specific material or chemical elements.

It has been theorised, that in seeing the singularity, it would be possible to avoid hitting it and being compressed to become part of it. In simpler words, it would be possible to avoid being squashed to death. Instead, one could almost swim past it, falling through a wormhole. These are disturbances in the fabric of space-time. By falling through one, you would end up in another area of space-time; a different place, a different time, or both.

Some original uses of black holes appeared in fiction writing long before the idea had been properly investigated by scientists. To start with, they were imagined as ‘monsters’, the villains in a story that would consume anything near it. They may also travel through space, eating anything in it’s way. They were ‘vacuum cleaners for the universe’, often sucking up nearby stars and planets, and the occasional unlucky astronaut or space-explorer.

Later, they were adapted into wormholes, used as portals for people to travel between different places, galaxies and sometimes even universes. Being able to travel faster than light became a common occurrence, with both dystopian and utopian novels using wormholes as the futuristic method of transport. Sometimes, characters would appear in unpredicted places, however star-gates were also made, where each wormhole had a partner that linked to each other, much like a doorway between different sides of the universe.

They were also used as a method for people to travel in time, being able to see the future and travel to the past. This attribute could be used for both good and bad characters, used to fix the future or to change the past.

Featured image: By Event Horizon Telescope – https://www.eso.org/public/images/eso1907a/ (image link) The highest-quality image (7416×4320 pixels, TIF, 16-bit, 180 Mb), ESO Article, ESO TIF, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=77925953

Too Much Space | by Jodie

With no one to turn to as I wake and only my own coffee to make, I make begrudging steps around the cabin towards the table. I glance up at the calendar. Two more months. Almost there. Six months is a tremendously long time and although I know that I should be enjoying my stay, it’s proving to be far more difficult than I could have imagined. A once in a lifetime opportunity, for which I have been preparing and aspiring towards since I can remember, one which has taken a lifetime of training and something that I am unlikely to ever experience again. But the distance is too great, too far and there is too much space.

I rub my eyes ferociously as I attempt to gather motivation for the day ahead. The importance of each and every task which I complete here cannot be understated. Each one crucial and so easily ruined. My brain desperately tries to shift my focus on to the tasks at hand but my heart wriggles, writhes and despairs to be reunited with those whom it misses. The photos and memories which I bear may try to fill the space, but my heart yearns for reunion. The people who surround me unknowingly comfort me daily, but they feel the space. They know that there is simply too much space.

Work has to be an escape, otherwise I remain consumed. Fitness must be maintained and monitored; research must be carried out. The application of what I have spent so long discovering is phenomenal. We work, day and night, yet we seem to have made menial amounts of progress. I am constantly reporting this back home, yet the team seem nothing but satisfied, even insisting we are marginally ahead of schedule, encouraging us to take more frequent breaks. Relax. Have fun. But my mind must stay at task as I bury myself in discovery, experiments and research. Experiencing what is out there and frantically attempting to find more, is what keeps me going. Supporting those around me and inspiring one another to strive for success. However, even when success is mounting, I am hit by the realisation that there is so much we don’t know, so much we will never know. There is just too much space.

I lie down, numb. This evening, the building longing sense within me has overpowered my logical and hopeful conscience. Overcome by what feels like grief, shaken by what feels like fear and defeated by what I know has to be heartbreak. No matter my willing, it will be two more months before the space is reduced. So, what is the point of wasting it? Determination will have to carry me through, else there is nothing. Because despite my constant neglectful thoughts and attempts to bury my sadness within me, I know that this distance, this space will soon close. My arrival will incur an emotional uproar but as for now, this is the time. The time to prove myself and succeed for the good of so many. There may be too much space for now, but I must continue to prove that space itself is not too much.

Space | by Rukaiya

Give me space.
Give me the life I always wanted.
The river running dry in my throat. Shutting down.
Give me a reason. To run from you and your imperfections. The warmth turned cold. Shut the gate from terrors.
Give me health. The fruit, the fig, the fall.
Walk away. Everlasting crimson cascading down my hair as the sky bleeds in mourning. Of us.
Guide me. My path unmeasured, unruly with tales of fear and promises of fortune.
Give me prayer. The words of a mother, the feel of another. Forever in your debt I am to be. A missive of heartache.

In the end, give me love.
I don’t want space.

Climate Change is a Gender Issue too! | by Mr E

Whilst we are becoming much more aware of the likely impacts of our changing climate we tend to think of the impacts varying according to wealth, but UN research indicates that, particularly in developing countries with traditionally defined gender roles, climate change impacts most on women. Women in general are disproportionately affected by climate change as they rely more on natural resources (i.e. water, food and fuel for cooking and heating), whilst at the same time being restricted in terms of their access to natural resources and decision making. For example in developing countries women are generally responsible for collecting water to meet domestic needs, a task which is becoming more difficult and time consuming for women / girls as supplies of water become more limited and they need to search further afield; this can have a negative impact on the education of girls as they may need to miss school to complete this domestic work.

Climate change is predicted to increase the number of natural disasters, such as flooding and drought. In countries like the Philippines and Bangladesh women make up a disproportionate number of the casualties from flooding events, in part because they are less likely to know how to swim, but also because women are less well informed about impending flood warnings and shelter information (despite their common role as caregivers to children and elderly relatives). The proportion of women and children displaced by natural disasters is disproportionately high at 75%. Also disaster relief efforts often focus on men’s needs. For example, following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami assistance was made available to replace fishing boats used by the men, but relatively little support was made available to replace the fish processing tools used by women.
This is not to say of course that climate change only affects women, with a specific impact of increasing drought in parts of India leading to higher suicide rates due to difficulties in making a living from the land. Gender also continues to play a part in the different impacts within developed nations, with a study in the USA showing a 98% increase in physical victimization of women following Hurricane Katrina (domestic violence often rises following a disaster through a combination of post traumatic stress and the strains placed on families living in temporary accommodation with reduced privacy).

In recognition of the importance of gender within the impacts of climate change the United Nations has explicitly incorporated gender actions within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The 2015 Paris Agreement explicitly refers to the empowerment of women, as well as inter-generational equity, in tackling climate change. There are already many example of projects funded by the United Nations to help communities adapt:-

  • In Mali solar energy technology has been made available in rural communities to help women to grind flour more quickly (a process vital for meal preparation but very time intensive traditionally). This has freed up time for women to pursue alternative activities to generate income.
  • In the hillside El Augustino district of Lima, Peru, a group of 100 women have replanted 18,000 square metres of land with Tara trees (a small, leguminous plant). Not only do these plants benefit the community through their medicinal properties in treating fevers and stomach problems but also the dense root systems help to hold the soil together, thus protecting communities from the increased landslide risk caused by more intense rainfall events.